Some dinosaurs ate lizards, turtles, eggs, or early mammals and some hunted other dinosaurs or scavenged lifeless animals. Most, however, ate vegetation (but not grass, which hadn't evolve yet). Rocks that contain dinosaur bones also contain remnant pollen and spores that indicate hundreds to thousands of types of plants existed during the Mesozoic Era. Many of these plants had ripe leaves, including evergreen conifers (pine trees, redwoods, and their relatives), ferns, mosses, horsetail rushes, cycads, ginkos, and in the latter part of the dinosaur age blossoming (fruiting) plants. Although the precise time of origin for flowering plants is still unsure, the last of the dinosaurs certainly had fruit available to eat.
Thursday, August 2, 2012
Thursday, July 26, 2012
Let us start with the present record holder, the dinosaur formally described as the biggest known to science, at least for the time being. This honour goes to the South American Sauropod Argentinosaurus (Argentinosaurus huinculensis). This massive dinosaur was officially named and described in 1993. It is only known from a few incomplete bones, including a femur and some vertebrae, (backbones). The vestiges were found in Argentina, hence the name. The tallest vertebrae are over 1.2 metres high. In comparisons with better known Sauropods size estimates for this dinosaur have been complete. These estimates vary significantly, with some scientists suggesting that this dinosaur may have been over forty-five metres long and weighing something close to seventy tones. Other more traditional estimates as to the size of this animal have been made, with a length of a little over one hundred feet being agreed upon by some palaeontologists. It is surely, true that this Cretaceous giant was an enormous animal, but until more fossils are found the true size of this dinosaur can only be predictable. A number of museums have capitalised on the reputation of the largest dinosaurs and equipped mounted replicas of this particular giant. The largest of these museum exhibits measures over thirty-five metres in length, but here again, without more fossil proof this display is largely speculative.
Monday, July 16, 2012
Is this the 'missing link' between dinosaurs and birds? Vestige egg discovered in Spain shows 'common forebear
The 'missing link' which proves the relationship among dinosaurs and birds may have been found.
It is a widely-held view that dinosaurs and birds share the same heritage, and an egg exposed in the Montsec area of Lleida, near Catalonia in Eastern Spain, shares individuality of both species.
The dinosaur egg, dating back 70 to 83 million years, has an oval shape, similar in exterior to a chicken egg, and an 'air bag' inside which birds today use to respire in the last stages of its growth.
The new type of dinosaur egg has been given the technical name of Sankofa pyrenaica and is the only dinosaur egg in the world to have an oval shape, alike to that of chicken eggs.
Nieves López Martínez, palaeontologist of the Complutense University of Madrid, was working on investigate of dinosaur eggs before her death in December 2010.
Together with Enric Vicens, palaeontologist of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, the two scientists conducted a thorough analysis of their detection, now published in the journal Palaeontology.
The South Pyrenean area is rich in dinosaur egg sites, most of which communicate to sauropod eggs from the upper Cretaceous, dating back more than 70 million years ago.
During that period, the area was a coastal area full of beaches and deltas which won land from the sea through residue buildup.
Sand and mud from that period gave way, millions of years later, to the stonework and marl where dinosaur leftovers now can be found. On the seashore ridges and flat coastal lands is where a large group of dinosaurs laid their eggs.
The sites anywhere the discoveries were made correspond to the upper Cretaceous, between the Campanian and Maastrichtian periods, some 70 to 83 million years ago.
The fossils found belong to small eggs measuring some 7 centimeters tall and 4 cm wide, while the eggshell was on standard 0.27mm thick.
Most of the eggs found were broken in small wreckage, but scientists also discovered more or less complete eggs, which can be easily deliberate in sections.
The eggs found at the sites all belong to the same species. The main difference when compare to other eggs from the same period is their irregular shape, similar to that of chicken eggs.
Tuesday, July 10, 2012
Well this is going to be one of those harsh questions to answer, but I'm going to give it my best explosion. Was Jesus actually here before the dinosaurs? Let's see if we can solve this anonymity and get down to the bottom of creation.
The first opportunity that we can take, is to find out when Jesus was actually born? Our best guess for Jesus' birth, would be somewhere between 0 and 5 C.E. without knowing the precise day or month that he was truly born. With that in brain, there haven't been any dinosaurs that I know of, after this time period.
So obviously Jesus wasn't here before the dinosaurs, unless Jesus and God are the same entity and that both of them were created approximately the same time period. Now is when things start to get a little mystifying. If Jesus was created about the same time that God was shaped, Jesus would have been here before the dinosaurs.
Maybe, or maybe not! Could the dinosaurs have actually been here before God and Jesus were born? This is the kind of stuff that goes during my mind on a daily basis and there is nobody that can really clear the fog out of the room, by answering these questions whether lucid answer.
Here's the one obsession that I do know for a fact, I don't really know if Jesus was here before the dinosaurs or after, because I really don't have any evidence that Jesus was ever born or lived. At the same time, I truly don't know for a fact, that dinosaurs existed.
By reading books like the Bible and history books, I can tell you that scientists have found bone structures that could easily hold theories that dinosaurs roamed the earth, but I have very little evidence to sustain the claims made in the Bible about the life of Jesus of Nazareth.
Thursday, July 5, 2012
Chechnya's huge Dinosaur Egg Discovery - Doubts Raised
Previous this week we were sent some pictures taken by a team of scientists who were investigative what was thought by a number of observers to be the fossilized remains of dinosaur eggs. There have been a substantial number of stories about this discovery in newspapers, journals and in both on-line and off-line media. Edifice workers responsibility the building of a new road were blasting their way through a hillside near the Chechen border with Georgia when the detection of more than forty, strange, spherical objects entrenched in the hillside was made. The strange objects, ranging in size from a few centimeters across to a whopping 1.02 meters were described as being dinosaur eggs and their discovery led to a "scramble" among scientists to learn more.
Stimulating Find in Chechnya
Dinosaur fossils are practically unknown from this part of south-eastern Europe. To find a whole array of dinosaur eggs, some of them three times the size of any other eggs recognized from the fossil record is truly extraordinary.
The Chechnya region has suffered in the past twenty years or so as separatist movements fought with Russia in a bid to form a sovereign state. The war-torn region has had millions of pounds (GBP equivalent) of state aid poured into it in a bid to improve the living circumstances for the local population, the road building project was one such regional growth measure, however, the planners did not "eggspect" to have a dinosaur egg pursue on their hands.
Saturday, June 30, 2012
The fossilized remains of a fossil brooding in its nest have emerged from the red sandstones of the gobi wasteland in mongolia, providing new evidence for a far longer-lived and flexible species than previously thought.
Called mpc-d 107/15, the new specimen is an oviraptor, which is the only dinosaur ever found in the act of threatening. More specifically, it belongs to the class known as nemegtomaia barsboldi, a crested ostrich-like theropod that lived in late cretaceous mongolia.
A 70-million-year-old nest of the dinosaur protoceratops andrewsi has been found with proof that 15 juveniles were once indoors it, according to a paper in the latestjournal of paleontology.
While huge numbers of eggs have been connected with other dinosaurs, such as the meat-eating oviraptor or sure duck-billed hadrosaurs, judgment multiple juveniles in the same dino nest is fairly rare.
Thursday, June 28, 2012
Researchers in Spain and Norway reported in the periodical Nature they had found tree-like growth rings on the bones of mammals, a characteristic that until now was thought to be limited to cold-blooded creatures and dinosaurs.
They also found proof that dinosaurs probably had a high metabolic rate to allow fast growth another pointer of warm-bloodedness.
"Our results strongly propose that dinosaurs were hot-blooded," lead author Meike Koehler of Spain's Institut Catala de Paleontologia told AFP.
If so, the findings should punctual a rethink about reptiles, she said.
Modern-day reptiles are cold-blooded, meaning they cannot control their body temperatures through their own metabolic system relying instead on outside means such as basking in the sun.
While the dinosaurs may have been hot-blooded, their other characteristics kept them directly in the reptile camp, said Koehler.
Paleontologists have long noted the ring-like markings on the bones of cold-blooded creatures and dinosaurs, and taken them to designate pauses in growth, perhaps due to cold periods or lack of food.
The bones of hot-blooded animals such as birds and mammals had never been correctly assessed to see if they, too, display the lines.
Koehler and her team found the rings in all 41 hot-blooded animal species they studied, counting antelopes, deer and giraffes.
The finding "eliminates the strongest quarrel that does survive for cold-bloodedness" in dinosaurs, she said.
The team's analysis of fillet tissue also showed that the fast enlargement rate of mammals is related to a high metabolism, which in turn is characteristic of hot-bloodedness.
"If you compare this hankie with dinosaur tissue you will see that they are equal," said Koehler.
"So this means that dinosaurs not only grew very fast but this increase was sustained by a very high metabolic rate, representative hot-bloodedness."
A comment by University of California palaeontologist Kevin Padian that was available with the paper said the study was the latest to chip away at the long-held theory that dinosaurs were cold-blooded.
"It seems that these were anything but characteristic reptiles, and Koehler and colleagues' findings remove another false association from this picture."
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
University of Manchester biologists used lasers to measure the minimum amount of skin requisite to enfold around the skeletons of modern-day mammals, including reindeer, polar bears, giraffes and elephants.
They exposed that the animals had almost exactly 21% more body mass than the minimum emaciated 'skin and bone' wrap volume, and applied this to a giant Brachiosaur skeleton in Berlin's Museum für Naturkunde.
Previous estimates of this Brachiosaur's weight have varied, with estimates as high as 80 tonnes, but the Manchester team's calculations published in the magazine Biology Letters abridged that figure to just 23 tonnes. The team says the new method will apply to all dinosaur weight capacity.
Direct author Dr Bill Sellers said: "One of the most important things palaeobiologists require to know about fossilized animals is how much they weighed. This is astonishingly difficult, so we have been testing a new approach. We laser scanned various large creature skeletons, including polar bear, giraffe and elephant, and calculated the minimum packaging volume of the main skeletal sections.
"We showed that the actual volume is reliably 21% more than this value, so we then laser scanned the Berlin Brachiosaur, Giraffatitan brancai, calculating the skin and bone packaging volume and added 21%. We found that the giant herbivore weighed 23 tonnes, sustaining the view that these animals were much lighter than usually thought.
Dr Sellers, based in Manchester's Faculty of Life Sciences, explained that body mass was a critical limit used to constrain biomechanical and physiological traits of organisms.
He said: "Volumetric methods are becoming more common as techniques for estimating the body masses of fossil vertebrates but they are often accused of extreme subjective input when estimating the width of missing soft tissue.
"Here, we display an alternative loom where a minimum convex hull is derived exactly from the point cloud generated by laser-scanning mounted skeletons. This has the benefit of requiring minimal user interference and is therefore more objective and far quicker.
"We tested this method on 14 large-bodied mammalian skeletons and established that it consistently underestimate body mass by 21%. We suggest that this is a robust method of estimating body mass where a mounted skeletal reconstruction is available and show its usage to predict the body mass of one of the main, comparatively complete sauropod dinosaurs, Giraffatitan brancai, as 23,200 kg.
"The value we got for Giraffatitan is at the low range of preceding estimates; although it is still huge, some of the huge estimates of the past 80 tonnes in 1962 are overstated. Our method provides a much more accurate gauge and shows dinosaurs, while still huge, is not as big as earlier thought."
Friday, June 22, 2012
Modern birds preserve the physical characteristics of baby dinosaurs, according to a new nature study that found birds are even more intimately related to dinos than previously thought.
Depending on the non-avian dinosaur and bird compared, that might be durable to believe. A toothy, angry rebuilding of tyrannosaurus rex, for example, on first glimpse looks little like a common backyard blue jay.
When researchers go beyond the outside to the tissue and skull levels, however, the similarities become more palpable.
News: 'extinct' animals back from the edge
Harvard University’s arkhat abzhanov, correlate professor of organismic and evolutionary biology, and bhart-anjan bhullar, a ph.d. Student in abzhanov laboratory and the first author of the study did just that and found proof that the evolution of birds is the result of a radical change in how dinosaurs urbanized. Rather than take years to reach sexual adulthood, as many dinosaurs did, birds sped up the clock (some species take as little as 12 weeks to mature), allowing them to lock into their baby relic look
"What is interesting about this investigate is the way it illustrates evolution as a developmental occurrence," abzhanov was quoted as saying in a press release. "By changing the developmental ecology in early species, nature has shaped the modern bird a completely new creature and one that, with approximately 10,000 species, is today the most winning group of land vertebrates on the planet."
Tuesday, April 17, 2012
A Russian paleontologist on Thursday debunked an exciting statement about fossilized dinosaur eggs having been establishing in a rocky hillside in Chechnya, saying the "eggs" were most probable just rocks. No dinosaur bones have ever been establish in Chechnya and eggs of the size exposed would be a first, said Alexander Karkhu of the Paleontology organization, part of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RIA-Novosti reported on Thursday.
"It is absolutely geology. Eggs of dinosaurs that range have never been seen before. At the similar time, there have been rather diverse discoveries that look similar to eggs: spherical, oval, ellipsoid shapes with the aim of non-biological in basis," Karkhu said. He told that he had viewed video of the substance and was about confident they were not eggs. Past week, geologists from Chechen State University told that they had established regarding 40 things ranging from 25 centimeters to 1 meter in diameter that they consideration were dinosaur eggs.
Wednesday, April 11, 2012
A strange birdlike dinosaur was about to lay her egg when she perished some 70 thousand decades ago in what is now Patagonia, experts have found. The situation is based on the progression of two dinosaurs egg resting near the partially skeletal continues to be of an alvarezsaurid dinosaur, which was a type of small maniraptoran, a list of theropod dinosaurs considered to be the line that gradually led to modern-day wildlife. Alvarezsaurids are unusual among dinosaurs, experts have said, due to their short, large forelimbs likely with a single number wearing a huge pull. The dinosaurs also display extremely birdlike pumpkin heads or scarecrows, even though they were flightless.
The group known as the dinosaur Bonapartenykus ultimus in recognition of Jose Bonaparte in 1991, who found the first alvarezsaurid in Patagonia, The dinosaur eggs were found less than 7.9 inches (20 centimeters) from the partially skeleton and seemed to fit in with that personal dinosaur. The experts decided out a postmortem preparing that introduced the two together. The partially skeleton was also articulated, which would likely not be the case if they had been relocated there after dying. Moreover, the experts didn't find proof of calcium mineral resorption, which happens in the later levels of embryonic progression when embryos are terrible up calcium mineral for skeleton development from the inner coating of the egg, according to research specialist Martin Kundrat of Uppsala School in Norway.
After various minute studies of the skeleton and egg, along with eggshells found in the area, the experts think the two eggs, each about 2.8 inches (7 cm) across, may have been in the oviducts of the women Bonapartenykus when she passed away. "So it looks like we have oblique proof for maintaining two eggs in two oviducts," Kundrat informed Stay Technology. "They were near to being set, but the women didn't make it." When assessing acrylic parts, found to fit in with B. ultimus, the experts found fossilized fungi; such contaminants impacts chicken egg these days, Kundrat said. "It looks like at the very overdue level the egg could experience from the same contaminants as in typical wildlife," he said during a phone appointment. "It doesn't mean it must destroy the embryo, because usually in the embryonic area or inner area it's still secured by a very heavy system of natural materials known as the spend tissue layer."
This mama dinosaur would have resided on Gondwana, the southern part of area in the Mesozoic Era, which survived from about 251 million to 65 million decades ago. The discovering, which will be specific in the June 2012 problem of the publication Cretaceous Research, reveals that beginning alvarezsaurids continued in what is now Southern region of united states until newest Cretaceous times told by Kundrat.
Friday, April 6, 2012
Paleontologists in China have originated evidence of the largest feathered dinosaur so far. The latest species, known as Yutyrannus, has been recognized from three fossils establish in north-eastern China. The feathered meat-eating dinosaur lived concerning 125 million years ago, long before Tyrannosaurus Rex, and is predictable to have weighed a whopping 1,400kg as a grown-up, the BBC reported. The finds, complete in Nature journal, challenge present theories about the progress of Tyrannosaurus Rex and its affairs.
This cluster of dinosaurs is known as the Tyrannosauroids. Tyrannosaurus Rex and its huge cousins live until approximately 65 million years ago - when enormous asteroids wiped out the dinosaurs - but the majority of their previous relatives are consideration to have been much smaller. On the other hand, Xing Xu and generation from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing have now detailed three specimens of Yutyrannus, which represent a premature example of the Tyrannosauroid form.
The dinosaur fossils contain the one-and-a-half-ton adult and also two young specimens that would have tipped the scales at concerning half a ton. The dinosaur, whose name translates as “beautiful feathered tyrant”, shares several features with shortly tyrannosaurs like T.rex, but has three useful fingers (where T. Rex had two) and a foot characteristic of additional early tyrannosaur relatives.
Perhaps the majority notable discovery, though, is the creature’s wide plumage, which provides direct confirmation for the survival of huge feathered dinosaurs. The scientists believe the long, filament-like feathers could have acted as insulation, but they cannot rule out the opportunity that they were moreover used for display in mating or fighting rituals.
Thursday, March 22, 2012
During the Cretaceous (145-65 million years ago), flame was much more common than earlier supposed, thus representing dinosaurs. during this era may have faced the unpredicted hazard, a latest study has exposed. Researchers from Royal Holloway University of London and The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago traced fire activity in the fossil evidence during the incidence of charcoal deposits, compile a worldwide database for this time gap. Charcoal is the remainder of the plants that were scorched and is easily conserved in the fossil evidence.
This era was a greenhouse world where international temperatures were higher than those of today. Lightning strikes must have been the main activate for these wildfires, but this stage was also one when full of atmosphere oxygen levels were high. Ian Glasspool report authors, points out that this “was why fires were so extensive. At such periods not like today plants with advanced wetness contents could burn.” The prevalence of fires all the way through the Cretaceous must have created a more troubled environment.
“Until now, a small number have taken into account the impact that fires could have had on the environment, not only destroy the plant life but also exacerbate run-off and erosion and promote following flooding following storms,” Professor Scott highlighted. These earlier period events may give a number of insights into how improved fire movement today may impact the world we live in.
Tuesday, March 13, 2012
In a latest study, scientists have named two new horned dinosaur species based on fossils collect from Alberta, Canada. The latest species, Unescopceratops koppelhusae and Gryphoceratops morrisoni, are from the Leptoceratopsidae group of horned dinosaurs. The herbivores live in the period of the Late Cretaceous between 75-83 million years ago. “These dinosaurs fill significant gaps in the evolutionary history of small-bodied horned dinosaurs to facilitate lack the large horns and frills of connections like Triceratops from North America,” Michael Ryan, guide author of the learn from The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, said. “Even though horned dinosaurs originate in Asia, our investigation suggests that leptoceratopsids radiate to North America and diversified here, ever since the latest species, Gryphoceratops, is the initial record of the group on this continent,” he said. Unescoceratops koppelhusae lived about 75 million years ago. It considered about one to two meters in length and weighed less than 91 kilograms. It had a small frill extend from behind its head but did not have ornamentation on its skull.
The dinosaur has a parrot-like beak. Its teeth are lower and rounder than those of any further leptoceratopsid. In addition, its hatchet-shaped jaw had a separate piece of bone that predictable below the jaw like a small chin. The lower left jaw piece of Unescoceratops was exposed in 1995 in Dinosaur Provincial Park, a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site through Philip Currie, Ph.D., at the present of the University of Alberta. Initially described in 1998 by Ryan and Currie, the dinosaur was referred to as Leptoceratops. Following research by Ryan and David Evans, beginning the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Canada, strong-minded the specimen was a latest genus and species. The genus is named to honor the UNESCO World Heritage Site title for the region where the specimen was established and from the Greek “ceratops,” which means “horned face.”
Monday, March 5, 2012
Though only regarding the size of a washout, Velociraptor still appear alike to terrifying predator. With snatching hands, a jaw set with curved backward teeth and, of course, a retractable scrape on each foot, almost every end of this dinosaur was pointed. Other than what did this well-appointed Cretaceous killer really eat?
One of the major candidates for a Velociraptor entree has been the little horned dinosaurs Protoceratops. A really magnificent fossil smooth the connection between these dinosaurs. At the same time the Velociraptor had kicked its deadly foot claw into the neck of the Protoceratops, the little ceratopsian had flattened the right arm of the predator, and the two remained protected together in death. The problem is that we can’t be familiar with these two dinosaurs were aggressive. Was the Velociraptor difficult to hound the Protoceratops? Or was the little predator itself attacked by a territorial Protoceratops? That the dinosaurs battled each additional is noticeable, but the cause for their fight remains a mystery.
But a lately described fossil established that Velociraptor or a much related dinosaur eat Protoceratops flesh. In 2010, paleontologist Dave Hone and co-authors report a set of Protoceratops skeleton that had been injured and scored by the teeth of a little predatory dinosaur. How the horned dinosaur died was undecided, but the tooth marks point out that they remains had almost been completely uncovered by the time the carnivorous dinosaur came along to pick off the remaining scraps. Since Velociraptor shared the similar habitat and was of the right size to leave the bite marks, the dinosaur is a fine candidate for being the hunter.
One more additional dinosaur fossil provides a still closer relation between Velociraptor and its victim. In an article the co-authors has been published about the part of Velociraptor meal sealed surrounded by the dinosaur’s body cavity. Represented by a corresponding skeleton to gut stuffing demonstrates the dinosaur fed upon a pterosaur.
Wednesday, February 29, 2012
The Tyrannosaurus Rex has one of the most powerful bites of every creature ever to roam the Earth - up to three-and-a-half times superior than the huge White Shark, according to new study. The dinosaur might bring its jaws together with an amazing force of up to 57,000 Newton (13,000 lbs) - four times additional than preceding estimates. Its presentation surpasses that of all animals, equally living and extinct, together with today's great white shark, the most frightening recent day creature which packs a 3,600 pound (1.8 tons) bite.
Musculoskeletal biologist Dr Karl Bates told: "Our consequences demonstrate T Rex had a tremendously powerful bite making it one of the most hazardous predators to have roamed our world." His researchers at Liverpool University complete computer models of T Rex's jaw and compare it with related reconstruction of the skulls of an additional theropod dinosaurs Allosaurus, an alligator and a human. They establish it clamped downward on is prey with a devastating force up to approximately fifty times more than a large African lion (1,235lbs).
Friday, February 17, 2012
The dates rear 190 million years, according to study available in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS). According to PNAS, the discovery was ended within the fossil-rich Gate Highlands National Park, situated in Free State, Republic of South Africa, by paleontologist Robert Reisz, a lecturer of biology at the University of Toronto.
"The significance is the premature date of nesting behaviors," told by John Wahlert, chair and professor of biology at Baruch College. Researchers from the site maintain that these latest dinosaurs nests are more than 100 million years older than the earlier thought oldest dinosaur-nesting site. According to PNAS, at the occasion of the research magazine, Reisz had situated ten nests; each nest contains 34 eggs, along with "attractive evidence of complex reproductive behaviors."
This recent discovery stands next to some of Reisz's other notable excavations, including the oldest known bipedal reptile, and the oldest known diapsid reptile. Evidence suggests that there are more eggs to be found in the area, according to Reisz, but they have just yet to be discovered and are covered by tons of rock.
These recently exposed nests contain clutches of eggs of the Massospondylus dinosaur. Many of these fossilized eggs hold embryos. "It is always attractive to have embryonic stages of dinosaur fossils," told Wahlert "They are delicate and very rare. It allows consideration of how dinosaurs grew." Beside with these egg grasp discoveries, facts are hinting at unknown reproductive behaviors that have also been exposed. According to the researchers, confirmation suggests that dinosaur nests were greatly organized; suggesting mothers may have agreed them carefully after she laid them. "I think it is incredible that we keep making such magnificent discoveries in South Africa.
Wednesday, February 8, 2012
We feel affection for to bring dinosaurs back to life. From museum displays and educational papers to big-budget movies, we have a fascination with putting flesh on old bones. How much anatomical guess and artistic license is necessary to do so vary from dinosaur to dinosaur.
Several dinosaurs are known from a trivial collection of remains and need a significant among of reconstruction and reinstatement on the basis of better-known specimens of connected species. Additional dinosaurs are known from complete skeletons and require less osteological internal strife, but they motionless there the challenge of filling in the soft tissue structure that the skeleton supported in life. Every now and then, paleontologists realize skin impressions related with the bones of dinosaurs. These rare dinosaur fossils can give us a enhanced idea of what the outside of a little dinosaurs looked like.
Skin impressions are established most often with hadrosaurs. These herbivores, such as Edmontosaurus and the crested Corythosaurus, are plentiful and seemed to reside in habitats where dead dinosaurs might be covered rapidly by residue, a key to the conservation of fleshy tissue structure. But these fossils can do additional help use reinstate the external appearance.
In 1912, specialized dinosaur hunter Barnum Brown named the hadrosaur Saurolophus osborni from skeletons establish in Alberta’s Horseshoe Canyon Formation. Although not mentioned at the time, three skeletons of this species were associated with skin impressions from different parts of the body, together with the jaw, hips, foot and tail. Forty years later, from skeletons originate in an enormous bonebed known as “Dragon’s Tomb” within Mongolia’s Nemegt arrangement; paleontologist Anatoly Konstantinovich Rozhdestvensky named a second species, Saurolophus angustirostris. Many skin impressions were established with skeletons of this kind, too. The information that two Saurolophus species had been originate with whole skin impressions provided Bell by means of exclusive occasion to evaluate the outer anatomy of two intimately related dinosaurs.
Both Saurolophus kind of dinosaurs had pebbly skin. Like other hadrosaurs, the skin of these dinosaurs was mainly collected of non-overlapping scales or tubercles of unreliable shape. In detail, Bell ascertained that the skin of the two species differed sufficient that one variety can be eagerly notable from the other dinosaur.
Friday, February 3, 2012
Stretching 22 meters beginning at nose to tail, Apatosaurus was one of the huge creatures to ever walk the planet. At 10 meters long by means of razor-sharp teeth, Allosaurus was one of the most terrible. How did such animals approach to control the planet? A new study suggests it was not anything more than dumb chance.
The predecessors of dinosaurs rose from the ruins of Earth's most horrible death. Previous to 251 million years ago, the leading, large animals on ground were the therapsids, early on forerunners to mammals. These shrew- to hippo-size creatures come in a range of forms, from tubby, tusked herbivores to nimble, saber-toothed predators. Many therapsids moved out, and the few, tiny lineages that survived faced opposition from a different kind of creature—the archosauromorphs. These reptiles, the precursors of dinosaurs, crocodiles, and their neighboring relatives, could rapidly rise to dominance.
To shape out how the archosauromorphs came to control other species, modify student Roland Sookias of Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Germany and generation traced the development of remains size in therapsids and archosauromorphs. They use femur length of in excess of 400 species of fossil creatures straddling 100 million years to approximation body mass and tracked how body size distorted in the two groups from the occasion of the Permian mass death to the heyday of the main Jurassic dinosaurs regarding 150 million years ago.
Sookias and collaborators established that the archosauromorphs grow into a wider variety of sizes together with the main animals on land-while the therapsids remained tiny. One cause may be that archosauromorphs just grew and breed faster. The earlier increase rate of the archosauromorphs, which had been exposed in preceding studies of dinosaurs and their relations, meant that these animals reached sexual maturity relatively previous than the therapsids. Faster expansion and propagation destined that the archosauromorphs rapidly extend and modified to overtake obtainable habitats and the environmental roles of large herbivores and big predators before the lesser, slower-growing therapsids had a possibility to put up a fight, Sookias says.
Not all of the archosauromorphs were big over time; they diversified into a diversity of body sizes all through the Triassic and Jurassic, from the comparatively tiny feathered dinosaur Anchiornis to Apatosaurus and Diplodocus, a number of the largest creatures to yet walk the planet. A key in to developing into such an extensive variety of sizes, Sookias says, may be in particular features such as air pockets inside dinosaur fossils that condensed the weight of their skeletons and opened up a wider range of probable sizes.
Saturday, January 28, 2012
Fossilized Dinosaur eggs supposed to be several 190 million years old have been originate in a South African national park. Paleontologists have exposed 10 nesting sites, jointly with the path of hatched fledglings, in a rock face face in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park in the foothills of the Maluti Mountains of the north eastern Free State. The nests are supposed to have been made in the early on Jurassic period by the herbivore dinosaurs, the Massospondylus carinatus.
Each of the 10 nesting sites contains a number of clutches of eggs, and they are establishing at different levels in the cliff face. It is thought that a number of the eggs also contain fossilized embryos. Massospondylus grow up to four to six meters long as adults, told by researchers, but their eggs are just six centimeters in diameter.
According to the research available this month in the magazine, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the greatly planned environment of the nests suggests the mothers may have agreed their eggs cautiously after laying them. “Even though the dinosaur fossil record is wide-ranging, we really have very little fossil details about their reproductive biology, mainly for early dinosaurs,” said by Dr David Evans, guardian of vertebrate paleontology at the Royal Ontario Museum located in Canada.
The fossilized tracks left after by the dinosaurs illustrate that hatchlings stay in the nest awaiting they doubled in size, and that the little Massospondylus walked on four legs while young. The animal then probable stood straight on two legs as an adult. The nests were found close to the same place in the foothills of the Drakensberg Mountains in the Free State region where scientists before establish the oldest known dinosaur embryo in 2005. It was this previous find that encouraged them to return and carry on their search. “The eggs, embryos and nests come since the rocks of a nearly vertical road cut only 25 meters long,” said by the paleontologist named Robert Reisz, a professor of biology at the University of Toronto Mississauga.
“Even so, we establish 10 nests, suggesting that there is a bunch more in the cliff, still enclosed by tonnes of rock. We forecast that many more nests will be battered out in time as natural weathering process continues.” The mine work was lead by Canadian and South African researchers, and they told, their findings propose the mothers were concerned and returned frequently to the site. This is the oldest recognized evidence of such performance among dinosaurs.
Wednesday, January 11, 2012
For more than 160 million years, dinosaurs were the leading terrestrial vertebrates on Earth. And China is wealthy in their fossilized leftovers. So, let's expend an instant with the scientists who walk in the foot prints of the dinosaurs. After 4 months of researching these huge footprints, experts have established that Yanqing county of Beijing was populated by dinosaurs over 140 million years ago.
This hillside is very probable to have been a soft river bank back then. But even from a limited print that was left at the rear, it's still possible to verify that both carnivore and herbivore dinosaurs previously gathered here. This type would have formed a great biological chain a real live "Jurassic Park." Zhang Jianping, executive of Geological Park Eval. Cntr, Univ. of Geosciences, said, "It's extremely significant for studying the work and behavior of dinosaurs over 140 million years ago. It's also important for the worldwide study of dinosaurs."
While Beijing experts learn path, in the Qijiang county of Chongqing Municipality, dinosaurs really "stand up". It all in progress when some footprints were originates in June of 2010. After migration, 82 fossils at Qijiang Museum of Natural History were all noticeable in order to be put together. The researchers had half of the dinosaur fossils, and following some cleaning up, the skeleton was very clear. Even so, it took them more than 5 months of restore and renovation to produce this 4 meter tall, 20 meter long mid-sized dinosaur. They map to place it on show for free after Spring Festival. Ever since 2003, more than 200 footprints have been found in Qijiang.
Thursday, January 5, 2012
The state has official dinosaurs — is the acrocanthosaurus, a carnivore and best predator from the beginning Cretaceous period, approximately 110 thousand years ago. Status 16 toes in height and with a 40-foot-long body, the old offered blade the pearly whites and increased spines all along its back that likely reinforced highly effective muscle tissue. It wasn't the most significant old of it is time, but it was the Tyrannosaurus Rex of its era — and for many, little proof of it was known. That improved in the beginning Early, when the most complete traditional is still of the old currently were uncovered by two beginner paleontologists in southeastern Ok. Cephis Hall and Sid Love dug up the old one bone each time, digging up it from a grime lender on area run by the Weyerhaeuser timber company.
“This is one of the biggest old developments and excavations in historical past,” said Russell Ferrell, who has published a publication about the discover and the lawsuits that followed. “It's initially in historical past that a number of rockhounds ... had taken on a significant old excavation completely impartial of any outside economical or logistical assistance from a paleontology office at a significant higher education or along with a significant traditional organization.” The volume of Ferrell's publication, “Acrocanthosaurus: The Bone of Argument,” talks about what occurred after the development.
“Digging it up was a big laborious task in itself,” he said, Yet Cephis and Sid had to fight a variety of highly effective individuals and organizations to maintain possession privileges to it and gradually get the element into the appropriate arms and fingers.” The bone was unusual. Past acrocanthosaurus discovers were existing and imperfect, 20 to 30 % of the creature at most. Until Area and really like, no one had seen an acrocanthosaurus go, and quotes of its dimension and mind possible were way off.
The scarcity made the bone valuable — economically and technically. Area and Really like experienced judgments from instructors and legal battles to maintain possession of their find. Although the bone ultimately sold for more than $3 million, Area and actually like gained only $285,000. Ferrell said the story is not like any other. “I contact this biggest old tale ever informed, and I believe that,” he said. “I've study a variety of other old guides, but I've never come across another like this.”