Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Tyrannosaurus Rex's bite was 'three times superior than shark'

The Tyrannosaurus Rex has one of the most powerful bites of every creature ever to roam the Earth - up to three-and-a-half times superior than the huge White Shark, according to new study. The dinosaur might bring its jaws together with an amazing force of up to 57,000 Newton (13,000 lbs) - four times additional than preceding estimates. Its presentation surpasses that of all animals, equally living and extinct, together with today's great white shark, the most frightening recent day creature which packs a 3,600 pound (1.8 tons) bite.
Tyrannosaurus Rex Dinosaur

Musculoskeletal biologist Dr Karl Bates told: "Our consequences demonstrate T Rex had a tremendously powerful bite making it one of the most hazardous predators to have roamed our world." His researchers at Liverpool University complete computer models of T Rex's jaw and compare it with related reconstruction of the skulls of an additional theropod dinosaurs Allosaurus, an alligator and a human. They establish it clamped downward on is prey with a devastating force up to approximately fifty times more than a large African lion (1,235lbs).

Friday, February 17, 2012

One of the Old Dinosaur Nest Exposed

The dates rear 190 million years, according to study available in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS). According to PNAS, the discovery was ended within the fossil-rich Gate Highlands National Park, situated in Free State, Republic of South Africa, by paleontologist Robert Reisz, a lecturer of biology at the University of Toronto.

"The significance is the premature date of nesting behaviors," told by John Wahlert, chair and professor of biology at Baruch College. Researchers from the site maintain that these latest dinosaurs nests are more than 100 million years older than the earlier thought oldest dinosaur-nesting site. According to PNAS, at the occasion of the research magazine, Reisz had situated ten nests; each nest contains 34 eggs, along with "attractive evidence of complex reproductive behaviors."

Dinosaurs Nest

This recent discovery stands next to some of Reisz's other notable excavations, including the oldest known bipedal reptile, and the oldest known diapsid reptile. Evidence suggests that there are more eggs to be found in the area, according to Reisz, but they have just yet to be discovered and are covered by tons of rock.

These recently exposed nests contain clutches of eggs of the Massospondylus dinosaur. Many of these fossilized eggs hold embryos. "It is always attractive to have embryonic stages of dinosaur fossils," told Wahlert "They are delicate and very rare. It allows consideration of how dinosaurs grew." Beside with these egg grasp discoveries, facts are hinting at unknown reproductive behaviors that have also been exposed. According to the researchers, confirmation suggests that dinosaur nests were greatly organized; suggesting mothers may have agreed them carefully after she laid them. "I think it is incredible that we keep making such magnificent discoveries in South Africa.

Wednesday, February 8, 2012

Judging a Dinosaur by its Skin

We feel affection for to bring dinosaurs back to life. From museum displays and educational papers to big-budget movies, we have a fascination with putting flesh on old bones. How much anatomical guess and artistic license is necessary to do so vary from dinosaur to dinosaur.

Several dinosaurs are known from a trivial collection of remains and need a significant among of reconstruction and reinstatement on the basis of better-known specimens of connected species. Additional dinosaurs are known from complete skeletons and require less osteological internal strife, but they motionless there the challenge of filling in the soft tissue structure that the skeleton supported in life. Every now and then, paleontologists realize skin impressions related with the bones of dinosaurs. These rare dinosaur fossils can give us a enhanced idea of what the outside of a little dinosaurs looked like.

Dinosaurs Skin

Skin impressions are established most often with hadrosaurs. These herbivores, such as Edmontosaurus and the crested Corythosaurus, are plentiful and seemed to reside in habitats where dead dinosaurs might be covered rapidly by residue, a key to the conservation of fleshy tissue structure. But these fossils can do additional help use reinstate the external appearance.

In 1912, specialized dinosaur hunter Barnum Brown named the hadrosaur Saurolophus osborni from skeletons establish in Alberta’s Horseshoe Canyon Formation. Although not mentioned at the time, three skeletons of this species were associated with skin impressions from different parts of the body, together with the jaw, hips, foot and tail. Forty years later, from skeletons originate in an enormous bonebed known as “Dragon’s Tomb” within Mongolia’s Nemegt arrangement; paleontologist Anatoly Konstantinovich Rozhdestvensky named a second species, Saurolophus angustirostris. Many skin impressions were established with skeletons of this kind, too. The information that two Saurolophus species had been originate with whole skin impressions provided Bell by means of exclusive occasion to evaluate the outer anatomy of two intimately related dinosaurs.

Both Saurolophus kind of dinosaurs had pebbly skin. Like other hadrosaurs, the skin of these dinosaurs was mainly collected of non-overlapping scales or tubercles of unreliable shape. In detail, Bell ascertained that the skin of the two species differed sufficient that one variety can be eagerly notable from the other dinosaur.

Friday, February 3, 2012

The Secret of Dinosaur victory

Stretching 22 meters beginning at nose to tail, Apatosaurus was one of the huge creatures to ever walk the planet. At 10 meters long by means of razor-sharp teeth, Allosaurus was one of the most terrible. How did such animals approach to control the planet? A new study suggests it was not anything more than dumb chance.

The predecessors of dinosaurs rose from the ruins of Earth's most horrible death. Previous to 251 million years ago, the leading, large animals on ground were the therapsids, early on forerunners to mammals. These shrew- to hippo-size creatures come in a range of forms, from tubby, tusked herbivores to nimble, saber-toothed predators. Many therapsids moved out, and the few, tiny lineages that survived faced opposition from a different kind of creature—the archosauromorphs. These reptiles, the precursors of dinosaurs, crocodiles, and their neighboring relatives, could rapidly rise to dominance.

Dinosaur Secrects

To shape out how the archosauromorphs came to control other species, modify student Roland Sookias of Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Germany and generation traced the development of remains size in therapsids and archosauromorphs. They use femur length of in excess of 400 species of fossil creatures straddling 100 million years to approximation body mass and tracked how body size distorted in the two groups from the occasion of the Permian mass death to the heyday of the main Jurassic dinosaurs regarding 150 million years ago.

Sookias and collaborators established that the archosauromorphs grow into a wider variety of sizes together with the main animals on land-while the therapsids remained tiny. One cause may be that archosauromorphs just grew and breed faster. The earlier increase rate of the archosauromorphs, which had been exposed in preceding studies of dinosaurs and their relations, meant that these animals reached sexual maturity relatively previous than the therapsids. Faster expansion and propagation destined that the archosauromorphs rapidly extend and modified to overtake obtainable habitats and the environmental roles of large herbivores and big predators before the lesser, slower-growing therapsids had a possibility to put up a fight, Sookias says.

Not all of the archosauromorphs were big over time; they diversified into a diversity of body sizes all through the Triassic and Jurassic, from the comparatively tiny feathered dinosaur Anchiornis to Apatosaurus and Diplodocus, a number of the largest creatures to yet walk the planet. A key in to developing into such an extensive variety of sizes, Sookias says, may be in particular features such as air pockets inside dinosaur fossils that condensed the weight of their skeletons and opened up a wider range of probable sizes.